Keyboard input remapping for Linux/Wayland 
I have an usb keyboard with missing keys (|,< and >).

For X remapping was done by xmodmap

| is remapped to right AltGr + Y
< is remapped to right AltGr + ;
> is remapped to right AltGr + :

keycode  52 = y Y y Y bar U203A guillemotright
keycode 59 = comma semicolon comma semicolon less multiply periodcentered
keycode 60 = period colon period colon greater division U2026
But under wayland i had to change to evremap (

To automatically activate remapping by a systemd service i did following

discover usb keyboard

#> dmesg
[ 4920.421719] usb 3-4.2: new low-speed USB device number 17 using xhci_hcd
[ 4920.539376] usb 3-4.2: New USB device found, idVendor=0e8f, idProduct=0022, bcdDevice= 2.10
[ 4920.539386] usb 3-4.2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0
[ 4920.539390] usb 3-4.2: Product: USB KB V11
[ 4920.539392] usb 3-4.2: Manufacturer: GASIA
[ 4920.614311] input: GASIA USB KB V11 as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:08.1/0000:03:00.4/usb3/3-4/3-4.2/3-4.2:1.0/0003:0E8F:0022.001A/input/input57
Search for name attribute

#> udevadm info -a -p /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:08.1/0000:03:00.4/usb3/3-4/3-4.2/3-4.2:1.0/0003:0E8F:0022.001A/input/input57
ATTR{name}=="GASIA USB KB V11"
and build an udev rule for systemd tagging

ACTION!="remove", SUBSYSTEMS=="input", ATTRS{name}=="GASIA USB KB V11", TAG+="systemd"
and reload udev and trigger

#> udevadm control --reload-rules
#> udevadm trigger --attr-match=subsystem=input

and search for a systemd device name with

#> systemctl list-units --type device --no-pager -a | grep V11
  dev-input-by\x2did-usb\x2dGASIA_USB_KB_V11\x2devent\x2dkbd.device                                                                               loaded active plugged USB_KB_V11
dev-input-by\x2dpath-pci\x2d0000:03:00.4\x2dusb\x2d0:4.2:1.0\x2devent\x2dkbd.device loaded active plugged USB_KB_V11
dev-input-event12.device loaded active plugged USB_KB_V11
sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:08.1-0000:03:00.4-usb3-3\x2d4-3\x2d4.2-3\x2d4.2:1.0-0003:0E8F:0022.001A-input-input57-event12.device loaded active plugged USB_KB_V11
sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:08.1-0000:03:00.4-usb3-3\x2d4-3\x2d4.2-3\x2d4.2:1.0-0003:0E8F:0022.001A-input-input57.device loaded active plugged USB_KB_V11
and check for status with

#> systemctl status "dev-input-by\x2did-usb\x2dGASIA_USB_KB_V11\x2devent\x2dkbd.device"
● dev-input-by\x2did-usb\x2dGASIA_USB_KB_V11\x2devent\x2dkbd.device - USB_KB_V11
Follows: unit currently follows state of sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:08.1-0000:03:00.4-usb3-3\x2d4-3\x2d4.2-3\x2d4.2:1.0-0003:0E8F:0022.001A-input-input57-event12.device
Loaded: loaded
Active: active (plugged) since Mon 2023-09-25 09:32:57 CEST; 1h 27min ago
Until: Mon 2023-09-25 09:32:57 CEST; 1h 27min ago
Device: /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:08.1/0000:03:00.4/usb3/3-4/3-4.2/3-4.2:1.0/0003:0E8F:0022.001A/input/input57/event12
and install evremap with correct permission and ownership

#> ls -la /usr/bin/evremap
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 15726808 Sep 20 15:37 /usr/bin/evremap
and discover the name with

#> sudo evremap list-devices

and build the remapfile (using evtest to discover keycodes)

device_name = "GASIA USB KB V11"

input = ["KEY_RIGHTALT", "KEY_Z"]
output = ["KEY_RIGHTALT", "KEY_102ND"]

output = ["KEY_102ND"]

input = ["KEY_RIGHTALT", "KEY_DOT"]
output = ["KEY_LEFTSHIFT", "KEY_102ND"]
Description=Keyboard Remap

ExecStart=/usr/bin/evremap remap /etc/evremap.toml -d 0

#> systemd enable evremap

[ view entry ] ( 1162 views )   |  print article
systemd-networkd - Play AP on plugin of your USB WIFI Stick 
check wifi device name
~# ip addr | grep -A 5 wlan
10: wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000

IP configuration of your Wifi Stick for systemd-networkd




Autostart of hostapd

Requires=sys-subsystem-net-devices-wlan0.device systemd-networkd.service

~# systemctl enable hostapd
Autostop of hostapd


[ view entry ] ( 9117 views )   |  print article
Multiple em28xx USB devices not automatically detected by the module 
I got multiple USB devices working with em28xx module.

Usually a module option gives the em28xx module the order of the devices if not automatically detected
(ex. options em28xx card=80,92,9,9).

But the order at boot is every time different (order for module option not usb detection).

The only working solution for me is to manual loading, scan the order from kernel logs, unload and load with the scanned order:

blacklist em28xx
blacklist em28xx_v4l
blacklist em28xx_dvb
blacklist em28xx_rc

Description=em28xx card sequence detection
Before=motion.service vdr.service




modprobe em28xx
sleep 1
modprobe -r em28xx_rc
modprobe -r em28xx_v4l
modprobe -r em28xx_dvb
modprobe -r em28xx

for line in $(dmesg|grep em28xx|grep 'New device'|tail -4)
[ -z "$cards" ] || cards="${cards},"
case "$line" in
*eb1a:2821*) cards="${cards}9" ;;
*2013:024c*) cards="${cards}80" ;;
*2013:0258*) cards="${cards}92" ;;

modprobe em28xx card=$cards disable_ir=1 disable_usb_speed_check=1

sleep 10

[ view entry ] ( 7878 views )   |  print article
portforward only key based chroot ssh access without a shell for the user under 64 Bit 
Match user USER
PasswordAuthentication no
AllowTcpForwarding yes
X11Forwarding no
PermitTunnel no
GatewayPorts no
AllowAgentForwarding no
ChrootDirectory /home/USER

But if the client needs a login shell this failed.

Well you could tell the client to not use a login shell:

ssh -N -L2222:IP:22 USER@SERVER

putty: SSH / Protocol Option enable "Don't start a shell or command at all"

or use an own loginshell where the user only can press return to disconnect:

sudo useradd USER -d /home/USER -s /bin/bash
sudo mkdir /home/USER
sudo chown USER:USER /home/USER
sudo su USER
touch .hushlogin (is used to not display motd's)
mkdir .ssh
chmod 0700 .ssh
cd .ssh
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096
mv authorized_keys
sudo passwd -d USER
sudo chown root:root /home/USER (for sshd chroot)
sudo cp own_loginshell /home/USER/

move /home/USER/.ssh/id_rsa out to your test account and test with "ssh -i id_rsa USER@IP"

I had some troubles with a chrooted environment:

/etc/passwd USER:x:ID:ID::/home/USER:/own_loginshell

.hushlogin is NOT working and motd with last login is shown!
pam.d/sshd is running all scripts in /etc/update-motd.d.

Solution move .hushlogin to /home/USER/home/USER

To hide motd and have no delays at login we could add an exception in pam.d/sshd for our user USER

session [default=2 success=ignore] quiet user != USER


session optional motd=/run/motd.dynamic
session optional noupdate

/etc/passwd USER:x:ID:ID::/:/own_loginshell

.hushlogin is working but before sshd is doing a chroot it checks the key against
authorized_keys based on our homedir (is / for chroot) wee need to

add "AuthorizedKeysFile /home/USER/.ssh/authorized_keys" to sshd_config


For 64Bit there is something different to 32Bit and with my studies i compiled with

gcc -s -Os -nostdlib -ffreestanding own_loginshell.c -o own_loginshell

#> chroot /ROOTDIR ./own_loginshell
chroot: failed to run command ‘./own_loginshell’: No such file or directory


#> strace chroot /ROOTDIR ./own_loginshell

you only see

execve("./own_loginshell", ["./own_loginshell"], 0x7fff17d94fe8 /* 24 vars */) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

But with the help of "readelf -l own_loginshell" you see

[Requesting program interpreter: /lib64/]

You have to copy /lib64/ to CHROOT/lib64/

Or compile with "-static"

simple program to print to stdout and read from stdin without libc for x86-64

taken from

gcc -s -Os -nostdlib -ffreestanding -static own_loginshell.c -o own_loginshell

#include <stddef.h>
#include <syscall.h>

static void exit(int code)
__asm__ __volatile__(
: "a"(__NR_exit)
: "cc", "rcx", "r11", "memory");
__builtin_unreachable(); // syscall above never returns

// returns negative value for error (for example, if error is EINVAL, then -EINVAL is returned)
static int write(int fd, const void *buf, size_t size)
long result;
__asm__ __volatile__(
: "=a"(result)
: "0"(__NR_write), "D"(fd), "S"(buf), "d"(size)
: "cc", "rcx", "r11", "memory");
return result;

static int read(int fd, char *buf, size_t size)
long result;
__asm__ __volatile__(
: "=a"(result)
: "0"(__NR_read), "D"(fd), "S"(buf), "d"(size)
: "cc", "rcx", "r11", "memory");
return result;

void _start()
char text[] = "press enter to close connection";

// for this example let's ignore result of write
// but you should really handle it
// 1 is stdout file handle
write(1, text, sizeof(text) - 1);
read(0, text, 1);


[ view entry ] ( 2086 views )   |  print article
ssh otp 
Install oathtool.
sudo apt-get install oathtool libpam-oath

Generate a secret.
export HEX_SECRET=$(head -10 /dev/urandom | md5sum | cut -b 1-30)

Generate the TOTP details, 6 digits long.
oathtool --verbose --totp $HEX_SECRET

Enter the base32 secret in Android FreeOTP.

Create and populate the /etc/security/users.oath file.
sudo bash -c "echo HOTP/T30 $USER - $HEX_SECRET >> /etc/security/users.oath"
sudo chmod 0600 /etc/security/users.oath

Forget the secret!

prefix /etc/pam.d/sshd with
auth sufficient usersfile=/etc/security/users.oath window=10 digits=6

Allow this in sshd and restart.
sudo sed -Ei -e 's/(ChallengeResponseAuthentication) no/\1 yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo service ssh restart

Test with
ssh localhost

You should see:
One-time password (OATH) for `USER':

To avoid otp for some users prefix /etc/pam.d/sshd with
auth [success=1 default=ignore] user in user1:user2

[ view entry ] ( 2052 views )   |  print article

| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | Next> Last>>