bluetooth network with bluez4 and udev 
Many things changed for bluez4. Now everything is made through dbus commands.

apt-get install bluetooth bluez (on server and client)

First check for bdaddr on server and client:

Server:> hcitool dev
hci0 00:01:1A:63:49:33

Client:> hcitool dev
hci0 00:02:6E:53:42:78


Server:> /usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/test-adapter discoverable on
Server:> /usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/simple-agent

Client:> /usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/simple-agent 00:02:6E:53:42:78 00:01:1A:63:49:33

Hint: On newer systems use /usr/bin/bluez-test-adapter, /usr/bin/bluez-simple-agent and bluez-test-network

On Server:
Agent registered
RequestPinCode (/org/bluez/25897/hci0/dev_00_02_6E_53_42_78)
Enter PIN Code: 1234
(keep simple-agent running)

On Client:
RequestPinCode (/org/bluez/4078/hci0/dev_00_01_1A_63_49_33)
Enter PIN Code: 1234
New device (/org/bluez/4078/hci0/dev_00_01_1A_63_49_33)

Pairing keys are stored hashed in /var/lib/bluetooth/<local bdaddr>/linkkeys

--- /usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/test-network
+++ /usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/
@@ -35,9 +35,10 @@
print "Press CTRL-C to disconnect"

- time.sleep(1000)
- print "Terminating connection"
+ while 1:
+ time.sleep(1000)

+print "Terminating connection"
Client:> /usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/ 00:01:1A:63:49:33
(keep test-network running)

On Server:
Authorize (/org/bluez/25897/hci0/dev_00_02_6E_53_42_78, 0000000f-0000-1000-8000-00803f9b24fa)
Authorize connection (yes/no): yes

Now you can stop simple-agent.

Server:> ifconfig ifconfig bnep0 netmask up
Client:> ifconfig ifconfig bnep0 netmask up

Now you can ping each other.

To avoid start simple-agent on server for connection authorisation each time you can trust the client with:

Server:> /usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/test-device trusted 00:01:1A:63:49:33 on


On my server i'm running a bridged network with dhcp support, therefore i use udev to add bnep to my bridge:

ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="bnep?*", PROGRAM="/usr/sbin/brctl addif br0 %k"


ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="bnep?*", PROGRAM="/sbin/dhclient -nw -pf /var/run/ %k"
ACTION=="remove", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="bnep?*", PROGRAM="/usr/bin/pkill -9 dhclient"

maybe you need to reload udev!

On clientside you only have to keep running
/usr/share/doc/bluez/examples/ 00:01:1A:63:49:33

Usually this should be done by networkmanager but this is not supported (now)

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dnstunnel with iodine and bind9 
Iodine server with public IP:

#> apt-get install iodine

For "good" connection i used a mtu of 256 through my provider DNS.
On local network no mtu change was necessary.

#> sysctl -e net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
#> iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

Bind9 server:

zone "DOMAIN" in {
type master;
file "/etc/bind/zones/DOMAIN";
allow-query { any; };

zone "tunnel.DOMAIN" in {
type forward;
forward only;
forwarders {
tunnel      1D   IN   NS    tunnelhost


#> apt-get install iodine
#> iodine -m 256 -P mypassword tunnel.DOMAIN
#> route add default gw

Well it seams that my provider drop's packets with some payload in it:

#> ping -c1 -s 109 fails


#> ping -c1 -s 109 -p ff succeeds

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Automount and autounmount of usb sticks / discs 
Each partition of plugged in usb stick's should be accessible with automount.

My mountpoints will be /media/usb/part0, /media/usb/part1, ...


The fist plugged stick has two partitions. The second only one.

/media/usb/part0 ... first stick partition one
/media/usb/part1 ... first stick partition two
/media/usb/part2 ... second stick partition one

If the second stick is plugged in first:

/media/usb/part0 ... first stick partition one
/media/usb/part1 ... second stick partition one
/media/usb/part2 ... second stick partition two

ACTION=="add", BUS=="usb", SUBSYSTEM=="block", KERNEL=="sd?[0-9]*", \
NAME="%k", PROGRAM="get_usbdisc_symlink", SYMLINK+="%c", OPTIONS+="nowatch"
OPTIONS+="nowatch" avoids removal by udev of the symlink after unmounting

#!/bin/sh -e

. /lib/udev/rule_generator.functions

[ -h /dev/usbpart0 ] && \
echo usbpart$(raw_find_next_available $(ls /dev/usbpart[0-9]*)) || \
echo "usbpart0"

exit 0
#> apt-get install autofs5

/media/usb /etc/auto.usb --timeout=5 --ghost

My usb sticks will be unmounted after 5 seconds not being in use.
With "--ghost" /media/usb/partX will automatically created.

part0 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart0
part1 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart1
part2 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart2
part3 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart3
part4 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart4
part5 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart5
part6 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart6
part7 -fstype=auto,noexec,nodev,nodiratime,noatime,nosuid :/dev/usbpart7
To have readwrite access for users add ",uid=$UID,gid=$GID"

For more partitions extend the lines.

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chrooted sftp only 
useradd -s /bin/false -m SFTPUSER
mkdir /home/SFTPUSER/.ssh
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048 -N '' -f /home/SFTPUSER/.ssh/id_rsa
chmod 600 /home/SFTPUSER/.ssh/id_rsa

Subsystem       sftp    internal-sftp

Match user SFTPUSER
PasswordAuthentication no
AllowTcpForwarding no
X11Forwarding no
ForceCommand internal-sftp
ChrootDirectory /chroot
chown root:root /chroot
mkdir /chroot/SFTPUSERDIR

echo "put FILENAME" | \
sftp -oIdentityFile=/home/SFTPUSER/.ssh/id_rsa \
-oTCPKeepAlive=no -oServerAliveInterval=15 \

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ssd optimizations 
* do partition alignment

Check if aligned at

Theodore Ts'o's blog post is somewhat misleading, as even that manufacturer's MLC SSDs have an erase block size of 512KiB (PDF), like OCZ's drives - not 128KiB. You're better off running fdisk -H 32 -S 32 /dev/sda, which will align partitions to 512KiB, and mke2fs -b 4096 -E stride=128,stripe-width=128 -t ext4 (128 * 4096B = 512KiB).

for partitioning see ... sing-fdisk

But without ATA TRIM your drive writes will decrease (depending on write usage)

The only solution seams to secure erase the whole drive and do a reinstall

* add "elevator=noop" to /boot/grub/menu.lst

Some tips i found but think this came from a myth:

* use a tempdir for logs

tmpfs /var/log tmpfs defaults,noatime,mode=0755 0 0
tmpfs /tmp tmpfs defaults,noatime,mode=1777 0 0
tmpfs /var/tmp tmpfs defaults,noatime,mode=1777 0 0

for dir in apparmor apt ConsoleKit cups dist-upgrade fsck installer news samba unattended-upgrades; do
mkdir -p /var/log/$dir

* Set Firefox Cache to RAM
in about:config set browser.cache.disk.enable to false

* change the file system mount options on SSDs to "noatime"

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